Heat supply is a system for providing heat to buildings and structures designed to provide thermal comfort to people in them or for the possibility of fulfilling technological norms.
The heat supply system consists of the following functional parts:
1) the source of thermal energy (boiler, CHP);
2) transporting devices of thermal energy to premises (heating networks);
3) heat-consuming appliances that transmit heat energy to the consumer (radiators, heaters);
Heat supply systems are divided into two subtypes, namely:
1) Centralized heat supply systems (a source of heat energy works for the heat supply of a group of buildings and is connected by a heat network with appliances for heat consumption);
2) Local (decentralized).
In its turn, they can be water and steam. The recent are not used very often these days.
In a centralized heat supply system, a heat source or a boiler house serves as a source of heat, which generates heat for a group of consumers: a quarter, a district or even the whole city.
With such systems, heat is transported to consumers via mains heat networks. From the mains, the coolant is supplied to central heating stations (TSCs) or individual heat points (ITPs). From the central heating center, heat is already flowing through quarterly networks to the buildings and facilities of consumers.
In local heat supply systems, the source of heat energy and its consumer are in the same building or very close to each other. For example, in a separate house a boiler is installed. The water heated in this boiler is subsequently used to meet the needs of the house in heating and hot water.
By the way of connecting the heating system, the heat supply systems are divided into:
1) Dependent systems - the heat carrier from the source of thermal energy (CHP, boiler room) comes directly to the consumer. With such a system, the scheme does not provide for the presence of central or individual heat points. In simple terms, the water from the heat networks goes directly to the batteries.
2) Independent systems - in this system there are TSCs and ITPs. The heat carrier circulating through the heat networks heats the water in the heat exchanger (the 1st circuit is red and green lines). The water heated in the heat exchanger circulates already in the heating system of consumers (2 circuits - orange and blue lines).
By the way of connection of the hot water supply system, the heat supply systems are divided into:
1) Closed. With this system, water from the water pipe is heated by the coolant and flows to the consumer.
2) Open. In an open heat supply system, water for hot water needs is taken directly from the heating network. For example, in winter you use heating and hot water "from one pipe". For such a system, the picture of the dependent heat supply system is valid.
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